Biomedical Engineering Research
Leon Iasemidis, Ph.D., Director of CBERS, Professor and Rhodes Eminent Chair of Biomedical Engineering, The Brain Dynamics Laboratory, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 152; The EEG Laboratory, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 107
The EEG Laboratory
A facility for recording and long-term monitoring of spontaneous (awake, asleep) or evoked electroencephalographic (EEG) activity from the surface or interior of the human and animal brain. The Lab is equipped with three computerized EEG recording systems and has the capability to record from up to 128 electrode sites.
The Brain Dynamics Laboratory
A teaching and research computational facility with multiple computer stations, large (Terabyte) associated data storage units, fast access to supercomputing networks, professional software for data analysis. We develop novel in-house algorithms to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of electrical (EEG) and magnetic (MEG) signals from the brain of patients and animals, and computer simulation models, on the way into and out of crises. Epilepsy and progressive brain post-traumatic illnesses are among the dynamical disorders we concentrate upon. Conventional signal processing, image processing and data mining techniques, as well as innovative measures of stability, complexity and information flow in networks of nonlinear systems are utilized for long-term prediction of epileptic seizures. Adaptive feedback control has been implemented for their efficient and effective real-time control via neuromodulation. The research at the Brain Dynamics Lab also assists with the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and evaluation of the treatment of those and other brain dynamical disorders.
Over the years, our research has been supported by federal and state funding agencies (NIH, NSF, DoD, VA, DARPA, the Science Foundation of Arizona), private foundations (American Epilepsy Research Foundation, the Whitaker Foundation) and other organizations (Cyberonics Inc.).
Prabhu Arumugam, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Location: Institute for Micromanufacturing 213
Dr. Arumugam's research interests are carbon nanomaterial synthesis and characterization, nano-bio-neuro electrochemical sensors for point-of-care diagnostics, biomedical coatings, advanced oxidation processes for water treatment, and electrodes for energy storage.
Thomas Bishop, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Chemistry and Physics, Location: Biomedical Engineering Center 231
Dr. Bishop's research interests are theoretical and computational molecular biology, with a particular emphasis in molecular modelling and molecular dynamics simulations of proteins and DNA. The current focus is developing workflows and a scientific gateway for atomic and coarse-grained modeling of DNA, nucleosomes and chromatin.
Emily Born, M.S., Animal Care/ Safety Director, Location: Biomedical Engineering Center 129
Mary Caldorera-Moore, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Therapeutic Micro- and Nanotechnology Biomaterial Laboratory, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 207
Dr. Caldorera-Moore’s lab focuses on development of innovative approaches to long-term drug release and targeted, cell-specific drug delivery. Our research combines microscale and nanoscale technologies with intelligent biomaterials to create new and improved ways to deliver therapeutic agents to target sites in the body. Research in the lab focuses on the design, fabrication, characterization, and use of advanced micro/nano biosystems for targeted delivery.
William Campbell, Ph.D., Associate Dean for Research at the College of Applied and Natural Sciences and Director of the School of Biological Sciences, Location: PML 913
Dr. Campbell's research interests are protein analysis, and environmental physiology/biochemistry.
Henry Cardenas, Ph.D., Program Chair of Mechanical Engineering and Associate Professor of Mechanical and Nanosystems Engineering, Location: Bogard Hall 238
Dr. Cardenas' research interests include nanosystems particle analysis, electrokinetics and nanomanufacturing engineering.
Niel Crews, Ph.D., Director of the Institute for Micromanufacturing, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, The Biological Microfluidics Laboratory, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 234
Dr. Crews' research interests focus on the creation, development and proliferation of microfluidic technologies for biomedical use. This research integrates the disciplines of Mechanical, Electrical, and Chemical Engineering with Biology and Physics. Activities include the design, fabrication, and testing of the device components, as well as the integration of these elements into functional systems. These operations are supported by the core laboratory facilities of the Institute for Microfabrication and the Biomedical Engineering Program.
Mark DeCoster, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering, The Cellular Neuroscience Lab, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 235
Dr. DeCoster's laboratory is designed for biochemical and digital imaging analysis of cellular events in the brain. Current planned activities include brain cell inflammatory responses, digital imaging of apoptosis in normal and brain tumor cells and response of brain glial cells to injury. Major equipment includes PC- and Mac-based imaging workstations (4); motorized inverted fluorescence microscope with digital camera (Leica).
Jamie Newman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biological Sciences Location: Carson-Taylor Hall 127
Dr. Newman’s research interests center around understanding gene expression during cellular differentiation and transformations. She has a particular interest in using stem cells to better understand patterns of differentiation in mammalian development using a variety of molecular biology techniques, imaging, and collaborations with people in areas of biomedical engineering.
Sumeet Dua, Ph.D., Associate Dean of Graduate Studies (COES), Upchurch Endowed Professor of Computer Science, Location: Bogard 253A
Dr. Dua's research specialization is Data Mining, Computational Decision Support, Structural Bioinformatics Biological System Modeling, Multi-modality Fusion, and Biomedical Imaging. Dr. Dua’s laboratory designs and implements high-performance algorithms and software “Cybertools” for data mining and computerized learning. These algorithmic tools discover, classify, and exploit trends, patterns, and anomalies in large volumes of data. The laboratory also develops unsupervised and supervised algorithmic routines for sequential, temporal, and associative pattern discovery in spatio-temporal spaces. These algorithmic routines have applications in gene expression and protein sequence/structure datasets based analytics (supported by NIH). Recent efforts have focused on extracting and isolating protein structural features that sustain invariance in evolutionary-related proteins through the integrated and localized analysis of hydrophobicity and other physico-chemical properties. Dr. Dua’s team is currently investigating such methods to computationally characterize biological resistance to freezing, desiccation, and radiation, to improve technologies for the detection and sampling of microorganisms under conditions similar to those found on the surface of Mars. Other applications of such data-mining methods include automated detection, identification, and tracking of patterns of (hostile) “targets” using multi-sensor satellite imagery and network data (for the U.S. Air Force).
Sven Eklund, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Chemistry, Location: Carson-Taylor Hall 331
Dr. Eklund's research interests involve designing and implementing extracellular biosensors for monitoring cell metabolism in various environments. Sensors are based on electrochemical or fluorescent signals that are used to measure multiple analytes concurrently in real-time (glucose, lactate, oxygen, pH, Ca2+, K+, etc.). He also is exploring the electrodeposition of thin films of tantalum metal from ionic liquids for coating of medical implants.
Rebecca Giorno-McConnell, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biological Sciences, Location: Carson-Taylor Hall 120
Dr. Giorno-McConnell's research interests involve the protein coatings that encase bacterial spores and allow them to survive harsh environments. She studies the assembly of the coat and the exosporium in the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Her work is done in the attenuate Sterne strain of B. anthracis.
Eric Guilbeau, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Biomedical Engineering
Dr. Guilbeau develops thermoelectric methods for applied biotechnology and biosensors. Activities include the development of microfluidic devices that utilize thermoelectric sequencing by incorporation methods to sequence DNA for SNP detection and to detect DNA hybridization events. He also uses thermoelectric methods to design novel biosensors for the detection of biologically active substances that are important for normal and abnormal biological and physiological function and to create gas sensors that can detect biologically important substances in the breath or toxic substances in the environment. Both experimental and modeling approaches are used as part of the design, development and characterization activities.
Patrick Hindmarsh, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biological Sciences, Location: Carson-Taylor Hall 201
Dr. Hindmarsh's research interests are Mycology/Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Chromosomal Loss and Genome Regulation, and Virulence Activation.
Bryant Hollins, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering, The Oxidative Stress Research Lab, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 222B
The oxidative stress research lab studies proteins that are prone to oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. One of the things we seek to determine is the interplay between these proteins and other biomacromolecules. The ultimate goal is to discover new protein therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.
Steven Jones, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering, The Biofluid Mechanics Laboratory Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 233
Dr. Jones' research interests stem from biomedical applications of fluid dynamics. Applications include the improvement of Doppler ultrasound instruments for velocity measurement, modeling of pressure-flow relationships in the vascular access grafts used for dialysis, and modeling of the effects of transport and flow on the positive feedback and negative feedback control mechanisms for platelet activation and adhesion. The laboratory includes laser Doppler velocimetry equipment, a cone-in plate viscometer, a data acquisition computer, various PC computers, ultrasonic equipment, an anti-vibration table, a spectrum analyzer, physiological pressure transducers, Carolina Medical electromagnetic flow meters, a transit time flow meter, model manufacturing facilities, a single syringe infusion pump and a 10-syringe infusion pump.
Yuri Lvov, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry, The Nanoassembly Laboratory, Location: Institute for Micromanufacturing L-7, Biomedical Engineering Building 236
Dr. Lvov's laboratory focus is on developing nanotechnology including nanoassembly of ultrathin organized films, bio/nanocomposites, nano/construction of ordered shells on tiny templates (drug nanocapsules, shells on microbes and viruses), clay nanotubes for controlled release of bioactive agents. Yuri Lvov was among the pioneers of the polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, a nanotechnology method which, after the first papers in 1993, was followed by many thousands of publications by researchers from all over the world. LbL nanoassembly has already been used in industrial applications for eye lens modification, improvement of cellulose fiber for better fabric and paper, microcapsules for insulin sustained release, cancer drug nanocapsules, and others. The basic principle of our research is nanoarchitectonic, and we develop: 1) nanoassembly approach in biomimetic engineering; 2) smart nanocontainers, nanocapsules and nanotubes for drug targeted and controlled delivery; stem cell and microbe encapsulation; 3) integrated nano/micro/macro-organized tissue scaffolds (in collaboration with Mark DeCoster and David Mills).
Daniela Mainardi, Ph.D., Program Chair of Chemical Engineering, Thomas C. & Nelda M. Jeffery Professor, Chemical Engineering, Nanosystems Engineering, The Nano/BioTechnology Modeling Laboratory, Location: Institute for Micromanufacturing 103
Dr. Mainardi's laboratory uses a theory-guided computational approach to get insight into critical areas in nano/bio technology for energy applications. Among them are the study of complex metal hydrides as hydrogen storage materials and enzyme reactions for environmental catalysis applications. Modeling and simulation capabilities available in the lab include a 16-node Xeon cluster of 3.06 GHz dual Xeon workstations, a 10 nodes-cluster of 800MHz dual alpha workstations and 8 Mini-Tower Dual Core Xeon Proc 5130 2.00 GHz dual workstations. Nanotechnology and biotechnology modeling and simulation software includes a campus wide license for Gaussian 03 and GaussView, Linda parallel library with license for the Xeon cluster and the Alpha cluster, Materials Studio for Quantum Mechanical calculations (DMOL3), Molecular mechanics and Dynamics (Forcite Plus and Discover), CASTEP and CPMD for Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics, NWCHEM, NAMD for molecular dynamics with VMD for visualization, MPI parallel libraries, DLPoly 3.0 (for molecular dynamics) and Carlos 4.0 for kinetic Monte Carlo studies.
David Mills, Ph.D., Professor of the School of Biological Sciences, The BioMorph Laboratory, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 238 and The NERO (Nanoscience Education and Research Outreach) Laboratory, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 151
The BioMorph Laboratory
Dr. Mills' BioMorph Laboratory is used for designing novel and dynamic nanofilms (biodegradable, bioactive, micropatterned) for cell adhesion, differentiation and functionality; nanoassembly for dental & orthopedic implants; layer-by-layer assembly for cell encapsulation; application of nanoscale topographic and chemical cues for controlling chondro- and osteogenesis; understanding complex soft tissue modeling during development and remodeling in response to altered joint mechanics; structure-function relationships in TMJ soft tissues, engineering tissues for TMJ repair or replacement.
The NERO Laboratory
Dr. Mills' NERO Laboratory supports a K-16+ outreach program that provides solid educational content and a strong technical foundation in the molecular sciences and bionanotechnology. Current activities of the lab include engaging K-12 teachers and students through summer and academic year research experiences and technology workshops, guiding teachers in translating their increased understanding of the research process into classroom learning experiences, improving understanding of the scientific research process and engineering design to teachers, students and the community, and increasing interest of K-16+ students in pursuing careers in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology (SMET) fields.
Teresa A. Murray, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering, The Integrated Neuroscience Imaging Laboratory, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 132
Dr. Murray’s research goals are to expand the reach and functionality of micro-optics for neuroscience applications and to create living bio-optical systems using molecular and cellular engineering. She plans to incorporate electrodes for field potential recording into implantable micro-optic devices and perform time-course experiments. Her main aim is to connect receptor dynamics, neural circuit function and behavior through in vivo fluorescence imaging, neural recording and behavioral experiments. This concerted approach will streamline experiments, enable unparalleled comparative analysis and elucidate connections not possible using multiple, discrete experiments. Additionally, this system will facilitate studies of neural dynamics and behavior in drug addiction, neurodegeneration, and stem cell therapy. While her focus has been on neuroscience, the tools and techniques she has developed have broad applications for life sciences and translational research.
Stanley A. Napper, Ph.D., Vice President of Research and Development, Louisiana Tech and Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Location: Wyly Tower 1629
Dr. Napper's role as Dean of Engineering allows him to participate at various levels in Engineering Education research. Earlier research activities have included Biomedical Engineering applications of artificial intelligence and mathematical modeling of physiological systems.
Randal E. Null, Ph.D., Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Location: Institute for Micromanufacturing 203
Dr. Null provides leadership to Louisiana Tech University and the State of Louisiana by providing national quality higher education in research and development areas that improve energy systems, cyberspace security, medical technology, fundamental nanotechnology processes, biological/chemical/physical sensors and other cutting-edge science and technology.
D. Patrick O'Neal, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering, The Nano Particle Training and Manufacturing Laboratory, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 136
Dr. O'Neal's laboratory focuses on biomedical optics and nanotechnology for the support of cancer detection, treatment, and management. Current activities include optical sensing and imaging, development of optically-active nanoparticles for detection, imaging, and drug delivery, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for bio-assays, and nanomaterial toxicity assessment. Major equipment includes a PTI Dual Monochromator Fluorescence Spectrometer, fiber optic equipment (Thor Labs), a Beckman Coulter DU-800 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, and a Raman Systems R3000-HR Raman Spectrometer: portable system with 785nm laser.
Dr. Poh's research interests involve developing diagnostic and therapeutic applications that possess adept properties and functions to target inflammatory diseases, cancer and/or infectious pathogens. We also prepare a variety of small molecules to macroscale architectures such as multi-functional nanoparticles, nanogels, liposomes and nanofibers. Our research focuses on chemical syntheses, characterization and the understanding of chemical, physical, biological properties and application.
Adarsh D. Radadia, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bio-Nanomaterials Interface Design & Applications Laboratory, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 218 and 220C
Dr. Radadia specializes in medical diagnostics for bacteria, viruses, and relevant protein and nucleic acid biomarkers; bio-physical-chemical interactions at the surface of carbon nanomaterials, especially graphene and nanodiamonds.
Bala "Ramu" Ramachandran, Ph.D., Executive Associate Dean for Research, Hazel Stewart Garner Professor of Chemistry, Location: Bogard Hall 201A
Dr. Ramu's research interests are in the general area of computational chemistry. His work deals with structure, energetics, and reactivity of organolithium compounds, and has been involved with the Louisiana Alliance for Simulation-Guided Materials Applications (LA-SiGMA). I am involved in the computational study of catalytic reactions on metal oxide clusters and surfaces. All of this work is computational in nature, and requires the use of high-performance computing platforms such as those provided by the Louisiana Optical Network Initiative (LONI).
Dr. Romer’s research is focused on understanding the mechanisms governing human balance and locomotion during occupational and sport-related tasks. His area of expertise includes gait variability in response to altered afferent feedback, interactions effects of the environment and equipment on human biomechanics, and lumbopelvic-hip cumulative trauma musculoskeletal disorders.
Michael K. Shipp, M.Ed., CDRS, Director, Biomedical Engineering-Center for Rehabilitation Engineering Science and Technology (CREST)
Areas of Responsibility: Director, Center for Rehabilitation Engineering, Science and Technology, Adjunct Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering, Certified Driver Rehabilitation Specialist
Jeff Shultz, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the School of Biological Sciences, Location: Carson-Taylor Hall 120
Dr. Shultz's research interests are Biochemical pathway mapping, comparative genomics, and combining research and education at the undergraduate level.
Ioannis Vlachos, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Statistics, Conducting Research with Dr. Leon Iasemidis in The Brain Dynamics Laboratory, Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 152 and The EEG Laboratory Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 107C Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 227
Dr. Vlachos’s research interests are time series analysis, stochastic processes, chaotic dynamic systems, and biomedical signal processing. Research is mainly directed towards understanding the epileptic brain through analysis of the EEG signal and tackling various epilepsy related problems such as prediction of epileptic seizures, localization of the epileptogenic focus and differential diagnostic procedures.
Yuri Voziyanov, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the School of Biological Sciences/Institute for Micromanufacturing, Location: Carson-Taylor Hall 121
Dr. Voziyanov's research interests include advanced genome engineering, DNA recombination: Protein-DNA Interactions. There are two main directions of our current research: advanced genome engineering using tailor-made sit-specific DNA recombinases and cell replacement in tissues using genetically modified adult stem cells.
Shengnian Wang, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering, The Biomolecule Nanoengineering and Cell Therapy Laboratory, Location: Institute for Micromanufacturing 112
Dr. Wang's research interests involve cell therapy and the nanoengineering of biomolecules. Activities include single DNA dynamics, microrheology and flow-guided assembly using biopolymers along with development of nano particles and nanodevices for non-viral cell therapy. Microfluidics and nanofluidics are integrated to offer such studies excellent platforms. Major equipment includes a CNC mill, an electroporator, a fluorescence microscope, and an atomic force microscope.
William Wolf, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the School of Biological Sciences, Location: Carson-Taylor Hall 123
Dr. Wolf's research interests are serine proteases in cancer biology, developmental biology and cancer gene therapy.
As a neonatal nurse practitioner, Dr. Eklund has decades of experience in medical management of ill or premature infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Setting. Prior to entering neonatal field, her clinical focus was in adult critical care, especially in cardiovascular specialty. Her current research interest is in improving the quality of care for the vulnerable population by combining current technologies with relevant neonatal specific knowledge. The aim is to focus on innovative ideas, which can lead to better modalities for care providers to improve patients’ physiological and neurobehavioral outcomes.
Other areas of interest include studying the Global Neonatal Workforce, and improving health education and policies that impact neonatal practice and neonatal outcomes worldwide. She collaborates with the Council of International Neonatal Nurses to conduct international research and participates in designing international initiatives.
She has authored textbook chapters in neonatal nursing in the United States and edited the first comprehensive Neonatal Nursing textbook in Japan. Her research in Advanced Practice Nursing, Global Neonatal Workforce, and Neonatal Scope of Practice has been published nationally and internationally. Her publications, including multiple peer-reviewed articles, have appeared in journals in medicine and surgery in addition to nursing.
Anne Hollister, M.D.
LSU Health Sciences Center - Shreveport
1501 Kings Highway
Shreveport, LA 71130
Chris Kevil, Ph.D.
LSU Health Sciences Center - Shreveport
Department of Pathology, BRI Room F7-21
1501 Kings Highway
Shreveport, LA 71130
Steven Conrad, M.D., Ph.D.
LSU Health Sciences Center - Shreveport
Pulmonary Critical Care
1501 Kings Highway
Shreveport, LA 71130
Dr. Conrad’s research interest focus on computational analysis of transport phenomenon in natural and artificial organs using micro-, macro- and multiscale approaches. Recent and current projects include the impact of vascular stenosis on oxygen delivery to tissue beds, particle-based medication delivery to the respiratory system, hemodynamics of dialysis graft circuits, and species transport during hemofiltration and hemodialysis. Research methods are based on computational fluid dynamics and other applications of multiphysics finite element analysis.
Pradeep Garg, Ph.D.
Center for Molecular Imaging and Therapy (CMIT) - Shreveport
Subsidiary of Biomedical Research Foundation of Northwest Louisiana
Details: Center for Molecular Imaging & Therapy
Core Research Support Laboratories
The Animal Care Facility
Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 129 through 148
The Animal Care Facility is a controlled-access facility located in the Biomedical Engineering building. These laboratories (Biomedical Engineering Building 129 through 148) occupy a total of 4,430 sq. ft., and the director's office and animal-related research laboratories occupy 1,700 sq. ft. A surgical suite, a cage washing area/autoclave room, storage, a necropsy laboratory, and nine individual animal housing rooms with ventilated cage racks that have individual electronic access control occupy 2,730 sq. ft. of space. The animals are monitored on a daily basis by the director or his designated employee. The university has a veterinarian on staff who is a member of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). He and the director provide training to research animal users. The University has an arrangement with the Licensed Laboratory Animal Veterinarian at Louisiana State University Medical Center in Shreveport for specialized assistance, when needed.
The Histological Techniques Laboratory (Animal Care Facility)
Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 134
This laboratory contains equipment for the preparation of specimens for light microscopy including paraffin ovens, an embedding station, a paraffin microtome, a vibratome, and staining equipment and supplies. The laboratory also contains equipment for the preparation of specimens for transmission electron microscopy, including an epoxy embedding area, epoxy oven, ultra microtome, and grid staining equipment and supplies. The room is equipped with a surgical table for collection of specimens and a chemical hood for safe use of toxic chemicals.
The Neuro Physiology Laboratory (Animal Care Facility)
Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 132
This laboratory houses a 1' x 7' Faraday cage for electromagnetic isolation, an inverted microscope and amplification equipment.
The Imaging and Nanopatterning Laboratory
Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 239
This laboratory contains a Bioforce Nanoscience Nano-Enabler for patterning biological substances with nanoscale precision onto substrates. The room also contains an Olympus MTV-3 stereo microscope with a Leica DFC500 camera, three Dell Precision imaging workstations, and a Suss MicroTeck micropositioning station.
The Tissue Engineering and Cell Culture Laboratory
Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 220B and 240
This laboratory has been designed to investigate the effects of hemodynamic phenomena on the behavior of vascular cells, (endothelial cells, platelets, smooth muscle cells, osteoblasts) as related to atherosclerosis, intimal hyperplasia, thrombosis, bone growth, and micromanufactured cell substrates. The laboratory includes a laminar fume hood, an environmentally-controlled flow chamber, an imaging microscope, an injection-flow apparatus (syringe pump), an incubator, a centrifuge, a refrigerator, and a plate reader. The laboratory is jointly funded by The Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Science (CBERS) and the School of Biological Sciences.
The Biomedical Engineering Common Laboratory
Location: Biomedical Engineering Building 221
This laboratory houses a set of shared equipment that is available to all of the faculty and students performing research in the Biomedical Engineering Center. Major pieces of equipment in this laboratory are a PC digital image analysis workstation, two refrigerator-freezers (to '20 ˚C), a chemical hood, a lyophilizer, a streaming potential instrument, a tensile strength instrument, a liquid scintillation counter, a centrifuge, a microbalance-scale, a pH meter, sn AKTA Prime Protein Purification System, an Advanced Chemtech Apex 396 protein synthesizer, and an upright microscope.